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APA Referencing (APA 6th edition): Audiovisual material

Referencing help and examples for using the American Psychological Association (APA) referencing style.

General rules for AV materials

The named authors are those with primary responsibility for the idea or intellectual content of the item. This may be a composer, director, or performer performing original material. Indicate which it is in round brackets after their name.

Put the format in square brackets after the title, e.g [CD], [DVD], [videorecording], [MP3], [Streamed audio]


The person responsible for the content of the music is the composer/writer, but the performer has a secondary responsibility.

In-text citation:

Sutter's performance of Philip Glass' Songs and poems for solo cello (Glass, 2008) highlights the question of...


Comparing Glass' introspective works for solo cello (Glass, 2008) with Bach's brash arpeggios...

Writer, A. (Role). (Copyright year). Title of song [Recorded/Performed by B. Artist]. On Title of album in italics [Medium of recording]. Location: Label. (Date of recording if different from copyright date)

Reference list:

Glass, P. (Composer). (2008). Songs and poems for solo cello Song I [Performed by W. Sutter]. On Songs and poems for solo cello [CD]. New York: Orange Mountain Music.

DVD, Video, or Television Program

For audio visual materials, list the primary contributors in the author position. Identify their role in brackets e.g. (Producer), (Writer), (Director). If no contributors can be found, use the name of the program in the author field.

In- text citation - with writer & director :

(Nicholson & Attenborough, 1998)

Reference List  with writer & director:

Writer Surname, Initial. (Writer), & Director Surname, Initial. (Director). (Production date). Title in italics [videorecording or DVD]. Place of Publication: Publisher.


Nicholson, W. (Writer), & Attenborough, R. (Director). (1998 ). Shadowlands [DVD]. New York: HBO Home Video.


In-text citation  -  no authors/contributors:

Professional Email etiquette (2010) provides some insight in to best practices when formatting important emails.

Reference list: No authors/contributors found

Title in italics (Year). [videorecording or DVD]. Place of Publication :Publisher. 


Professional Email etiquette. (2010). [DVD]. Mill Valley, California: Kantola Productions.


The business: Starting a record label. (2003). [DVD]. Bendigo: Classroom Video.

For a television program, simply use [television  program] instead of [DVD] or [videorecording]

YouTube/Online Video/Streaming video

YouTube videos

List YouTube or other online videos under  authors name, or screen name if full authors name not available. Use [Video file] to qualify the details.

Author, A. [Screen name]. (year, month day). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from http://xxxxx

Screen name. (year, month day). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from http://xxxxx



In-text citation

There are a plethora of paranormal activity style videos available online (Apsolon, 2011)

Reference list

Apsolon, M.[markapsolon]. (2011, September 9). Real ghost girl caught on Video Tape 14 [Video file]. Retrieved from


Streaming video

Fukuyama, M. (2006). At the corner of me and myself: Voices of multiple social identities [Streaming video]. Hanover, MA: Microtraining Associates. Retrieved from


 Environmental practices at work : Office. (2013). [Streaming video] . Bendigo: VEA. Retrieved from

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