Skip to main content
site header image

Harvard Referencing: Audiovisual material

This guide shows students and staff how to reference using the Harvard Referencing style.

General rules for AV materials

The named authors are those with primary responsibility for the idea or intellectual content of the item. This may be a composer, director, or performer performing original material.

It's good to put the format in square brackets after the title, e.g [CD], [DVD], [videorecording], [MP3], [streamed audio]

CDs

The person responsible for the content of the music is the composer, but the performer has a secondary responsibility. For traditional music, name the performers. Include the publisher's catalogue number, if known.

In-text citation:

Sutter's performance of Philip Glass' Songs and poems for solo cello (Glass 2008) highlights the question of...

OR

Comparing Glass' introspective works for solo cello (Glass 2008) with Bach's brash arpeggios...

Reference list:

Glass, P. 2008,  Songs and poems for solo cello [CD] Performed by Wendy Sutter. Orange Mountain Music , New York OMM0037.

DVD, Video, or Television Program

For scripted material, list as the author the first person named in the writing credits. For non-scripted materials, use the name of the program in the author field.

In-text citation:

Sketches of Frank Gehry (2006) provides some insight in to the processes used by the architect in his work.

OR

The relaxed nature of Pollack's record of his friend, Frank Gehry (Sketches of Frank Gehry 2006) is due, to a large extent, to their long friendship. 

Reference list:

Title in italics Year, [videorecording or DVD] Publisher’s name, Place of publication.

Sketches of Frank Gehry 2006, [DVD] Hopscotch Entertainment, Los Angeles.

OR

The business: starting a record label 2003, [DVD] Classroom Video, Bendigo.

For a television program, simply use [television  program] instead of [DVD] or [videorecording]

Podcast

The author of a podcast is not always clear. For this reason, podcasts are listed in the reference list under their title, rather than author. The creators or performers can be acknowledged in the in-text citation.

In-text Citation

Val McDermid (Library Love Fest 2009) suggests that her newest thriller...

Reference List 

Library Love Fest 2009, [podcast], 10 Febuary, Retrieved: December 22, 2010 from http://technology.podcast.com/episode/34945607/88594/

Radio Program

The reference list should use the name of the radio program as author, rather than the person speaking. Use the in-text citation to indicate the speaker, as appropriate.

In-text Citation

Tony Eastley (AM 2010) stated....

Reference List

AM 2010, [radio program] ABC National, 27 March.

 

YouTube/Online Video

List YouTube or other streaming videos by title. Acknowledge the author or creator of the work in your in-text citation, as required.

In-text citation

The first step in the preservation of pop-up books (Preservation of pop-up books, conserving the past (Baldwin Library exhibit) 2008) is to...

Reference list

Preservation of pop-up books, conserving the past (Baldwin Library exhibit) 2008, [online video], Retrieved: 22 December 2010, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=djTERCYWcRg&playnext=1&list=PLF021049A349B25C4&index=2

© Box Hill Institute RTO: 4687 CRICOS: 02411J