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APA Referencing (APA 6th edition): Books (print or online)

Referencing help and examples for using the American Psychological Association (APA) referencing style.

Print Book With One Author

In-text citation:

 

Librarians have had a love-hate relationship with Wikipedia (Pressley, 2010, p. 20)

 

Reference List:

Author's surname, Initials. (Year). Title in italics (Edition) - if not the first edition. Place of Publication : Publisher.

Examples:

Wittman, S.A. Stam, J. (2016). Redesign your library website. Santa Barbara CA: Libraries Unlimited.

Bryman, A. (2016). Social research methods (5th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.

 

Note

Each reference should have any lines after the first line indented by 1.25cm. This is known as hanging indentation. 

 

 

Print Book With Two Authors

In-text citation:

The chain of survival varies whether the patient is in or out of hospital (Sorrentino & Remmert, 2017, p. 831).

OR

Sorrentino and Remmert (2017, p. 831) discuss how the chain of survival varies whether the patient is in or out of hospital.

Perry, Potter and Ostendorf (2017, p. 271) argue that health literacy is increasingly important in both the hospital and home environment when caring for patients.

Reference list:

Surname, Initials & Surname, Initials. (Year). Title in italics (Edition) -if not the first. Place of Publication : Publisher name.
 

Examples:

Sorrentino, S. A.,  & Remmert, L. N. (2017). Mosby's textbook for nursing assistants (9th ed.). St. Louis, Missouri : Mosby.

 

 Points to remember:

  • In a list of multiple authors, place a comma after the full-stop following an initial EXCEPT when it is the last name in the list.
     
  • When referring to a work by two authors, use '&' rather than 'and' in the reference list and inside the brackets of the in-text citation but on all other occasions use 'and'.

Print Book With Three, Four or Five Authors

Cite all authors in the first in text citation, then in subsequent citations, use only the surname of the first author followed by et al.

Example :

In-text citation:

First citation :

Effective communication is a key practice for nurses both in academic and practical contexts (Lawrence, Perrin & Kiernan 2015, p. 70)  

Subsequent citations :

(Lawrence et al.,  2015, p. 82) or Lawrence et al. (2015, p. 82) stress the importance of information literacy, central to which is the capacity to evaluate information sources.

First citation :

Atkins, de Lacey & Britton (2014, p. 6) argue that a good life can take many forms because our basic needs for self-esteem, solitude and justice can be satisfied differently in different cultures.

Subsequent citations:

Atkins et al. (2014, p. 121) have found that....

Reference list:

Surname, Initials, Surname, Initials,  Surname, Initials, & Surname, Initials. (Year). Title in italics (Edition ). -if not the first. Place of publication: Publisher name.   

Lawrence, J., Perrin, C. , & Kiernan, E. (2015).  Building professional nursing communication. Port  Melbourne, Vic :  Cambridge University Press.

Evans, K., Nizette, D., O'Brien, A. (2017). Psychiatric and mental health nursing (4th ed.). Chatsworth, NSW: Elsevier Australia.  

Points to remember:

  • Use the names of  all authors in the reference list and in the first in-text citation.
  • In subsequent in-text citations of the same work use only the first author's name followed by 'et al.'

Print book with six or more authors

 When a work has six or more authors, cite only the surname of the first author followed by et al. for all in-text citations 

In text citation:

Early human communities developed around river valleys with access to fresh water (Bulliet et al., 2011).

Reference list :

Bulliet, R. W., Crossley, P. K., Headrick, D. R., Hirsch, S. W., Johnson, L. L., & Northrup, D. (2011).

The earth and its peoples: A global history. (5th ed.). Boston, MA : Wadsworth.

Note:

  • If a work has six or seven authors, list all names in the Reference list
  • If a work has eight or more authors, list the first six authors in the reference list followed by et al.

Print Book With No Author

In-text citation:

If a work has no author or editor, use the title of the book in place of the family name of the author.

In text citation :

Domenico Dolce and Stefano Gabanna have the wonderful ability to '... dress a woman like a woman ... even if she wants to dress like a man' (10 years of Dolce & Gabanna, 1996, p. 136).

 Reference list:

Title in italics (edition). (date). Place of publication: Publisher.

Example:

10 years of Dolce & Gabbana. (1996). Milan : Leonardo Arte.

 Points to remember

  • When this book is put in the reference list, it will file under T  for Ten.  Alphabetise the entries beginning with numbers as if they were spelled out in full.
  • Put titles of books in italics in the reference, and in  the in-text citation.
  • Although only the intial letter of the first word should be a capital letter, in this case Dolce and Gabanna have initial capitals because they are both personal names.  Names of countries and organisations should also keep their capital letters.
  • In text, use the first few words of the title, or the whole title if it is short.

Edited Book

 Reference list :

Surname, Initials. (Ed.). (Year). Title in italics.(Edition). -if not the first. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example:

Daly, J., Speedy, S., & Jackson, D (Eds.).(2014). Contexts of Nursing: an introduction. Chatsworth, NSW:Elsevier Australia.  

In text citation:

It is extremely important to give explanation to patients before undertaking a complex procedure (Daly, Speedy & Jackson 2014).

Note:

  • There is no need to add (Ed.) to the in-text citation for edited works.
  • Note the capital E used for the abbreviation for Editor, as opposed to the lower case used for edition numbers.
  • If more than 1 editor, follow general guidelines for number of authors, and use the abbreviations (Eds.) in the Reference list.

Chapter in an Edited Print Book

In-text citation:

Clark (2005, p. 168) notes the change in attitudes to second hand clothing in Hong Kong, which occurred in the 1990s.

OR

Second hand clothing, formerly only for those who could afford nothing else, became fashionable in Hong Kong society during the 1990s (Clark , 2005).

Reference list:

Chapter author Surname, Initials.(Year). Chapter title. In Editors initials and surnames (Ed/s.), Book title in italics (pp. pages). Place of Publication : Publisher.

Examples:
 

Clark, H. (2005). Second hand fashion in Hong Kong. In A. Palmer &  H. Clark (Eds.), Old clothes, new looks: second hand fashion (pp.309-330).  Oxford : Berg Publishers.

Jenner, P. (2002). The noble art of management  In B.Brown (Ed.), The MMF music manager's manual (pp. 3.1-3.8.). Surry Hills, N.S.W : Music Manager's Forum.

 Points to remember

  • Use the surname of the author of the chapter in text.
  • The abbreviation for 'editor' is Ed. and the abbreviation for 'editors' is Eds. - with full stops at the end.
  • The abbreviation for 'edition' is ed.
  • The general rule for full-stops and abbreviations is that you need a full-stop at the end of each abbreviation.

Encyclopedia or Dictionary

In-text citation

The relevant page number should be included in the in-text citation. Where there is no author, use the title of the resource in your in-text citation.

Hyperpyrexia (Mosby's dictionary of medicine ..., p. 241) is a ....

Reference List

Mosby's dictionary of medicine, nusing & health professions. (2014). (3rd ed.). Chatswood, NSW: Elsevier Australia.

  • List the editor of the work if available
  • For major reference works with  a large group of editors, you can list the name of the chief editior followed by et al.

Example :

Last et al. (Eds.). (2018). The dictionary of public health (2nd ed.). London : Oxford University Press.

online e-Book

The basic structure for referencing an online book is the same as for a print edition - you just need to add "Retrieved from", plus URL if the book is from a public website. The example below is for a book with a single author.

In-text citation

Knowledge of XML can be a great help when working with metadata (Lubas, Jackson & Schneider, 2013, p. 12)

Reference list:

Author's surname, Initials. (Year). Title in italics (Edition).  - if not the first -  Retrieved URL of database or online service.

Example:

e-Book from EBL e-Books

Lubas, R., Jackson, A. &  Schneider, I. (2013). The Metadata Manual : A practical workbook. Retrieved http://bhil.eblib.com.au/patron/FullRecord.aspx?p=1575002.

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