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Music - NonWestern music: Citing references

"Ethnomusicology" is the study of traditional and living music from oral traditions, especially music sourced outside of the urban Western European cultures.


RefWorks is a citation manager. It captures citation details from library catalogues, online databases and the Web, then manipulates this information into the right formats for in-text citations and bibliographies.

RefWorks is housed on a US server, meaning that your references can be accessed from anywhere you have online access.

Please use this link to the RefWorks libguides.

RefWorks is subscribed by Box Hill Institute. If you wish to retain your references after leaving Box Hill, use the References option in Office 2007 instead of RefWorks.  

Helpful websites

Sites on Harvard referencing

Monash University 

University of South Australia

University of Technology, Sydney

Bournemouth University (UK)

Canterbury Christ Church University (UK) 

University of Leicester (UK)

University of Newcastle 

Sites on Music referencing in particular

University of Western Ontario (Canada). Excellent sections on naming keys, and using recommended fonts in titles, but please do not follow the Turabian system of numbering references as we are using the Harvard author-date system instead . See the whole site as music departments all over the world link to it.

Harvard referencing

Harvard referencing is a family of styles known as "author-date" referencing.  There are different versions but the author's name is always followed directly by the year of publication, both in the in-text citation and in the end-notes or bibliography. Be consistent, whichever version you choose.

In-text citations consist of an abbreviated form: Authors surnames (up to 3, otherwise first author "et al.") followed by Publication year in brackets.

The full citations are listed in the bibliography aka endnotes at the end of your document, not at the foot of each page. List the items alphabetically by author, then in date order, with a b c etc added after the year if the authors have published more than once in a given year.

An easy way to remember the citation order is to treat publication - the act of putting the item in the public arena - as an EVENT. The event is associated with metadata for WHO, WHEN, WHAT, WHERE. This reminds us to list Author/ Performer (Date). Title. Place of publication: Name of publisher.

The details are as follows.

  • Primary responsibility (personal author/s or corporate author or composer; performer if improvised),
  • Publication year,
  • Title or Article/ Chapter title and Work title,
  • Edition or Volume number and issue number and date of issue,
  • Secondary responsibility and role if necessary (edited by..., translated by..., arranged by..., performed by...),
  • Further identifier if necessary (opus number would go after title but you could add a catalogue number  here),
  • Place of publication if a book but not for a periodical or recording (the place is followed by abbreviated US or Australian state or UK county unless it is a major city), Treat the journal volume (issue) and date as a VIRTUAL place or container. Treat a Web URL / address and the date accessed as another VIRTUAL place or container
  • Name of publisher if a book or a recording but not for a periodical.
  • Page numbers.

For an article retrieved from an online database your teacher will have a policy as to whether you name the database.

If you are quoting an item you haven't seen yourself, e.g. a quote someone else has used or maybe a book you have accessed on Google Web, please break the citation into two parts: the citation of the original item as quoted, then "as in" and give the details of where you found it, using the patterns suggested above.



Writing hints

Here are some hints and techniques for better writing, put together by your own Whitehorse staff.  

How to write a better paper

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