Failing to reference the resources you have used to complete an assignment can get you into trouble with your teacher, your teaching centre and the law. Claiming the work of others as your own (by quoting from books, websites or other sources without acknowledging them through a reference list) is a breach of copyright law called plagiarism.
Referencing correctly is a way of showing your teacher what is your work and what is supporting material drawn from another source.
Referencing usually involves two elements: something in the main text indicating where a quote or idea has come from, and a list of all resources used at the end of the assignment.
Assignments will often require you to use a combination of books, videos, DVDs, websites, magazines or periodicals, articles from databases, newspapers and other resources. Every item used, regardless of format, must be acknowledged.
List items alphabetically, with a space between each item.
In general, the type of information, and the order that it is presented in is as follows: author - date- title of work - publishing details. However, the exact format depends on the type of resource. The boxes below explain the format for some of the most common resource types.
How to refer to something while you’re writing
Work the author’s surname or organisation’s name, the year of publication and the page number into the paragraph you are writing. The purpose is to give basic details so your reader can get more information from the list at the end.
Example 1: It has been proven that mice have four legs (Jones, 1999, p12)
Example 2: Jones (1999, p12) has proven that mice have four legs.
Example 3: In his 1999 text, Jones states that mice have four legs (p12.)
Note that page numbers are only necessary for in text citations when direct quotes or precise information are used.
Surname, Initials. Year, Title in italics, Edition (if not the first), Publisher’s name, Place of publication.
Morrison, J. 2006, The international business environment: global and local marketplaces in a changing world, 2nd edn, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, Hampshire.
Surname, Initials, Surname, Initials & Surname, Initials. Year, Title in italics, Edition (if not the first), Publisher’s name, Place of publication.
Hanson, D., Dowling, P.J., Hitt, M.A., Ireland, R.D. & Hoskisson, R.E. 2008, Strategic management: competitiveness and globalisation, 3rd edn, Thomson Learning Australia, South Melbourne, Vic.
Surname, Initials. (ed.) Year, Title in italics, Edition (if not the first), Publisher’s name, Place of publication.
Tuck, A. (ed.) 1993, Oxford dictionary of business English: for learners of English, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Chapter of an edited book
Surname, Initials. (of the author of the chapter) Year, ‘Chapter title’, in Book title, Edition (if not the first), Editor, Publisher, Place of publication, pp.
Kiffin-Petersen, S. 2006, 'Individual differences in personality, values and attitudes', in P. Murray, D. Poole, & G. Jones (eds.) Contemporary issues in management and organisational behaviour, Thomson Learning, South Melbourne, Vic.
Surname, Initials. Year, ‘Article title in inverted commas’, Journal title in italics, volume or issue of publication as listed on the Journal or database record, page number, Retrieved: Date you accessed it, From: name of database you used to find the article.
Cooper, M.P. 2008, 'Wellness can be a powerful business management strategy, but it takes intelligent planning and execution', Employee Benefit Plan Review, vol. 63, no. 5, p. 10, Retrieved: May 20, 2009, from ProQuest: ABI/INFORM Select, Article 1602448761.
Title in italics, Year [videorecording or DVD], Publisher’s name, Place of publication.
Financial reporting for business, 2008 [DVD], Video Education Australasia, Vic.
Author/organisation’s name, Year, Page title in italics, Retrieved: date accessed it, from: specific website address (best to copy and paste to ensure accuracy.)
McKee, S. 2009, What happens when growth stalls, Retrieved: May 20, 2009 from <http://www.bettermanagement
If there’s no date?
Put [n.d.] where you would usually put the year. (This applies to all forms of resource where a date cannot be found.)