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Harvard Referencing

This guide shows students and staff how to reference using the Harvard Referencing style.

Electronic Journal Article - One Author

In-text citation:

Edwards (2006, p. 77) notes the growing popularity of department stores for purchasing fashion items.  

Reference List:

Author's surname, Initials. Year of publication, 'Title of article in single inverted commas', Name of Journal in italics, vol. number, issue number (or month), page numbers, Retrieved: Day month, year, from DOI or Name of Database.

Example :

Edwards, B. 2006, '"We are fatally influenced by goods bought on Bond Street": London, shopping, and the fashionable geographies of 1930s Vogue', Fashion Theory, vol. 10, no. 1/2, pp. 73-96, Retrieved: 12 November, 2010, DOI: 10.2752/136270406778050987


  • DOI = Digital Object Identifier. If a DOI number is available for the journal article it should be included as a replacement for the database name. You can include the database name or the DOI, but not both. If a DOI is not available, and the item does not come from a database, include the URL of the article instead
  • The use of both single and double quotation marks at the beginning of the article title are present because the first part of the title is a quotation.

Electronic Journal Article - More Than One Author

In-text citation:

You, Cheng and Yan (2009, p. 37) point out that the production of yarns other than cotton also involves a significant level of pollution.


A by-product of the production of synthetic fibres is nitrous oxide, which depletes the ozone layer (You, Cheng & Yan 2009, p. 37)


If  FOUR or MORE authors use the name of the first author plus et al. in the in-text citation  eg.  (Leeders et al. 2009, p.34), but include the names of all authors in the reference list (same as for books with four or more authors).

Reference list:

You, S., Cheng, S. & Yan, H. 2009, 'The impact of textile industry on China's environment', International Journal of Fashion Design, Technology and Education, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 33-43, Retrieved: 12 February, 2019, DOI: 10.1080/17543260903055141

Points to remember:

  • The title of the article is written in normal type and has single quotation marks around it.
  • All the words in the title of the magazine/journal (except and, of, in etc.) have an initial capital letter and are written in italics.
  • vol. 2, no. 1 are the volume number and the issue number.  If you cannot find them give the date of publication (month or season e.g. Spring.
  • Always remember to include the Retrieved date  (date the article was viewed/printed/saved).

Electronic Journal Article - Author Not Known

In-text citation:

The novel The Sea, The Sea by Iris Murdoch is incisive on the issue of moral goodness, a subject to which Murdoch has devoted much of her life. ('Editorial Design' 2010, p. 66).

Reference list:

'Editorial Design' 2010, Design Week, March, pp. 65-68, Retrieved: 12 November, 2010, from EBSCOhost - Vocational Studies Complete. 

Points to remember

  • The title of the article takes the place of the name of the author
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