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Harvard Referencing

This guide shows students and staff how to reference using the Harvard Referencing style.

Page on a Website

In-text citation:

Josiah Wedgwood & Sons was one of the first ceramic manufacturing companies to create a permanent museum of their works plus examples of early trials and experimental pieces (The Wedgwood Museum n.d.).

Reference list:

Author/organisation’s name Year, Page title in italics, Retrieved: date you accessed it, from specific website address (best to copy and paste URL to ensure accuracy.)

If there’s no date?

Put n.d. where you would usually put the year. (This applies to all forms of resource where a date cannot be found.)

The Wedgwood Museum n.d., About us, Retrieved: 29 April, 2020, from


Points to remember:

  • Make sure you reference the precise page that you got the information from, not the homepage of the website
  • If there is no author or organisation name associated with a webpage, use the title of the webpage instead
  • If a website contains a year of creation as well as the year it was last updated, use the date of the last update.

Web Document


In-text citation:

Allwood et al (2006, p. 16) list the main occupational health issues for workers in the clothing and textiles industry: hazardous chemicals, fibre dust, noise and monotonous repetitive processes.


The use of child labour still remains a significant problem in the clothing and textile industry (Allwood et al. 2006). 

Reference list:

Allwood, J. M., Laursen, S. E., Malvido de Rodriguez, C. & Bocken, N. 2006, Well dressed?: the present and future sustainability of clothing and textiles in the United Kingdom [PDF], Retrieved: 14 December, 2015, from

Point to remember:

  • If the document is a Word document, the description is: [Word document].


In-text citation:

Geofroy Tory, the 16th century French designer was influenced by the work of Leonardo da Vinci and designed typeface based on the proportions of the human body (Chin 2006, p. 7).


Chin (2006, p. 7) notes the influence of the architecture and works of Leonardo da Vinci on the typeface designs of Geofroy Tory.

Reference list:

Chin, R. 2006, History of typography: history of digital font [PowerPoint slides], Retrieved: 29 January, 2020, from,7,Typography and Print: Creating Type 

Point to remember:

  • Both these web documents come from a tertiary institution (.edu or .ac).  This is a good indication that the information should be reliable. If you find a document on the Internet with only the author's name, try checking out the details of the author to see if he/she is a source you can cite confidently or if he/she is attached to any organisation, which may give you some idea of possible affiliation, background or bias. 

Government website

In-text citation:

Legislation introduced in 2010 ensures that visual artists receive five per cent of the resale price of any work sold for $1000 or more (Department of Communications and the Arts n.d.).

Reference list:

Department of Communications and the Arts n.d., Resale royalty scheme, Retrieved: 14 December, 2015, from

Social media (Facebook, Twitter etc.)

 These are treated as web pages.

Author surname  initial. Year, ”Page title or first few words of update in italics..” Account name, [source], day month (of update), Retrieved : (day month year of retrieval,) from URL.

In text references :

e.g. The Office of the Prime Minister (2011) updated their Julia Gillard Facebook page on 13th January  with a reference to…….

e.g. The launch of Tesla's first all-electric truck was tweeted by the CEO on April 2017 (Musk, E.).

Reference list

Office of the Prime Minister 2011, “Prime Minister Gillard today announced...’’, Julia Gillard, [Facebook], 13th January, Retrieved: 20 January, 2011, from

Musk, E. 2017, "Tesla Semi truck unveil...", Elon Musk, [Twitter], 13th April, Retrieved: 28 September, 2017, from


·         Only use references from Facebook or Twitter if they are appropriate to academic work

·         If a proper name is not given, use the username

·         As tweets and status updates do not have titles, use the first few words of the message as a title.

Blog post

These are treated as web pages.

Author/organisation’s name Year, Page title in italics [weblog post], month and date of post, Retrieved: date you accessed it, from specific website address 

In-text citation:

Melissa Verplank (2017) believes that for pets being groomed every 4-6 weeks, most medium-sized dogs should be groomed for about an hour. For larger, furrier dogs a full-brush-out or haircut should be approximately 90 minutes.  

Reference list:

Verplank, M. 2017, '7 speedy grooming tips for a happier pet', [weblog post], March 16, Retrieved: 6 April, 2017, from,

Discussion group

Your reference list should only include each thread from a discussion group once, even if you are using material from more than one posting, so you need to include enough information in each in-text citation to clearly identify the posting that you are referring to.

In-text Citation

"Argus' posting of 1 December 2010 ( ) indicated that ..."

Reference List

Resource Description and Access (RDA) discussion list for Australia 2010, Status of the US RDA Test, Retrieved: 13 December, 2010, from


List Wiki entries by the title of the entry, as the authorship is not specified.

In-text Citation

Wikis are generally created using specific wiki software ('Wiki' 2017)

Reference List

'Wiki' 2017, Wikipedia, Retrieved: 14 April, 2020, from

Citing websites with multiple pages

Sometimes you must cite multiple web pages with different URLs from the same website. Information from individual pages on a website can be distinguished from one another by inserting a lower case letter after the year.

In-text Citation

Degree students can borrow 15 items at a time (Box Hill Institute n.d.-a). The library produces online guides known as LibGuides (Box Hill Institute n.d.-b).

Reference List

Box Hill Institute n.d.-a, Borrowing, Retrieved: 16 June, 2020, from

Box Hill Institute n.d.-b, How can I find subject guides for my course?, Retrieved: 16 June, 2020, from


If the website includes a publication / page last updated year it would be 2020a, 2020b, 2020c, etc.