If you are quoting someone word-for-word or using someone else's ideas or statistics in your writing, you will need to reference it within the body of your work. Work the author’s surname or organisation’s name, the year of publication and the page number into the paragraph you are writing. The purpose is to give basic details so your reader can get more information from the list at the end.
Example 1: 'In the food and beverage industry, it is estimated that 25 percent of employees steal regardless of the controls in place' (Walker 2011, p. 222).
Example 2: Walker (2011, p. 222) states that 'in the food and beverage industry, it is estimated that 25 percent of employees steal regardless of the controls in place'.
Example 3: In his 2011 text, Walker states that 'in the food and beverage industry, it is estimated that 25 percent of employees steal regardless of the controls in place' (p. 222).
Note that page numbers are only necessary for in text citations when direct quotes or precise information is used.
Small quotations (less than 30 words)are included in your writing with the text in single quote marks:
The pearl has been 'a particularly potent literary device' (Joyce & Addison 1992, p. 15) in many cultures from ancient times.
If the quotation is longer than 30 words, set it out like this:
The post-war years were not a time of great innovation. As Ewing (2001, p. 167) states:
To get back to normal, which meant to order and stability, was the general longing and fashion voiced this conservative mood in a series of smooth, well-balanced lines, embodied in clothes of notable elegance, carefully designed, well-made and flattering.
The post-war years were not a time of great innovation:
To get back to normal, which meant to order and stability, was the general longing and fashion voiced this conservative mood in a series of smooth, well-balanced lines, embodied in clothes of notable elegance, carefully designed, well-made and flattering. (Ewing 2001, p. 167)
Points to remember for longer quotes:
Sometimes an author will cite another author and you may want to use this in your assignment. Care needs to be taken with quotations and citations taken out of context. It is a good idea to try to track down the original work. If you are not able to find the original work, you may still use a quotation from or a reference to the cited work, making sure that you acknowledge both of the authors.
'Although Barnes sees the mods as a male-dominated youth culture (Barnes, 1991: p.8), Garber and McRobbie argue that the mods were the first 'softer' working-class subculture, in which girls could participate more openly and directly (Garber & Mc Robbie, 1979: p.226).'
Some writers disagree with the idea that the mods were a male dominated subculture (Garber & McRobbie 1979, p. 226 in Jenss 2005, p. 192).
Garber & McRobbie (1979 p. 226 in Jenss 2005, p. 192) claim that the mods were one of the first youth subcultures in which girls could participate more fully.
Jenss, H. 2005, 'Sixties dress only!', in A. Palmer & H. Clark (eds), Old clothes, new looks: second hand fashion, Berg Publishers, Oxford.
References to personal communications such as letters, emails, interviews, or phone conversations can be included in assignments. The in-text citation should have the author's surname followed by their initials, then the abbreviation pers. comm. and the date. These citations should not be included in the Reference List/Bibliography.
The patient valued the knowledge and experience of other cancer patients more than medical information (Wilson, P. 2013, pers. comm., September 10).
When interviewed, Susan Jones said she halted her information seeking because of fearful and contradictory information (Jones, S. 2013, pers. comm., September 28).
If you include the authors in the sentence, they are listed in chronological order by year of publication in brackets.
If the author's names are not included in the sentence, they are enclosed together in one set of brackets and presented chronologically, starting with the first published. A semi-colon is inserted after each citation of the author and year of publication.
Morrow & Young (1996), Irish & Parsons (2016) and Elish-Piper (2017) all stress the importance of parent participation in children's literacy development.
Previous research has found that parents play a key role in their children's literacy development and school success (Morrow & Young, 1996; Irish & Parsons, 2016; Elish-Piper, 2017).
If you are referring numerous times to an organisation with a long title, you may use the relevant acronym or initialism. The first time you refer to the organisation, include both the full title and, in parentheses (round brackets), the acronym or initialism. Thereafter, the acronym or initialism will suffice. Both acronyms and initialisms are written without full stops.
Example in text :
The Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) has a policy on removing injured animals. The RSPCA is permitted to enter a property at any time following a report of complaint (RSPCA 2006).
In the reference list, both the long title and the acronym or initialism must be included. For example:
Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) 2006, Policy statement on removal of animals at risk, RSPCA, Brisbane.