In some cases you may want to refer to an illustration, image or photo in a book or to the information in the caption. Treat these just as you would use written text. The following example is of an unnamed piece of sixties art, which has a strong reference back to the drawings of Aubrey Beardsley.
The mid 1960s saw a revivial of interest in, and reference back to, artwork from the end of the previous century, for example the drawings of Aubrey Beardsley (Gorman 2001, p. 69).
Gorman, P. 2001, The look: adventures in pop & rock fashion, Sanctuary Publishing Ltd, London.
An image that has an author/creator and date:
Some of the excitement and alarm that rail travel caused are captured by Turner (1844) in his painting of the Great Western Railway.
Turner, J. 1844, Rain, steam, and speed - The Great Western Railway, oil on canvas, National Gallery Picture Library, Retrieved: 28 January, 2020, from
An image that has no author/creator and no date:
This photograph captures the shade formed when yellow blends into green (Pear n.d.).
Pear n.d., photograph, Public Domain Pictures, Retrieved: 28 January, 2020, from
This can be an artwork (painting, photo, sculpture, building, design, installation etc) reproduced in a book or article or video.
Both Picasso's The three musicians (Arnason 1978, p. 337), were painted in 1921.
Arnason, H. 1978, A history of modern art, Thames and Hudson, London.
Points to remember:
You may have seen an original artwork (painting, photo, sculpture, building, dress, design, installation etc) at an exhibition, gallery, fashion show, museum, personal collection etc and would like to reference it. This is not something from a catalogue, magazine, book or an image on the Internet. In the text and in the reference list the artist/creator takes the place of the author.
Epigram (Hardy Amies 1960) is typical of cocktail dresses of that period.
A very colourful vase belonging to that period is Plique a jour (Gustav Gaudernack c. 1907).
Amies, H. 1960, Epigram, cocktail dress, Victoria and Albert Museum, London.
Gaudernack, G. c. 1907, Plique a jour, enamelled vase, Kunstindustrimuseet, Oslo.
Points to remember: