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Harvard Referencing

This guide shows students and staff how to reference using the Harvard Referencing style.

General rules for AV materials

The named authors are those with primary responsibility for the idea or intellectual content of the item. This may be a composer, director, or performer performing original material.

It's good to put the format in square brackets after the title, e.g [CD], [DVD], [videorecording], [MP3], [streamed audio]


The person responsible for the content of the music is the composer, but the performer has a secondary responsibility. For traditional music, name the performers. Include the publisher's catalogue number, if known.

In-text citation:

Sutter's performance of Philip Glass' Songs and poems for solo cello (Glass 2008) highlights the question of...


Comparing Glass' introspective works for solo cello (Glass 2008) with Bach's brash arpeggios...

Reference list:

Glass, P. 2008, Songs and poems for solo cello [CD] Performed by Wendy Sutter. Orange Mountain Music , New York OMM0037.

DVD, Video, or Television Program - scripted material

For scripted material, list as the author the first person named in the writing credits. 

In-text citation:

Morgan (2016) creates a moving drama, based on true events.


The struggle for women's equality in England involved women from all areas of society (Morgan, 2016). 

Reference list:

Authors surname, intials. Year, Title in italics [videorecording or DVD] Publisher’s name, Place of publication.

Morgan, A. 2016, Suffragette [DVD] Sony Pictures Entertainment, Australia.

For a television program, simply use [television  program] instead of [DVD] or [videorecording]

DVD, Video, or Television Program - unscripted material

For non-scripted materials, use the name of the program in the author field.

In-text citation:

Sketches of Frank Gehry (2006) provides some insight in to the processes used by the architect in his work.


The relaxed nature of Pollack's record of his friend, Frank Gehry (Sketches of Frank Gehry 2006) is due, to a large extent, to their long friendship. 

Reference list:

Title in italics Year, [videorecording or DVD] Publisher’s name, Place of publication. 

Sketches of Frank Gehry 2006, [DVD] Hopscotch Entertainment, Los Angeles.


The business: starting a record label 2003, [DVD] Classroom Video, Bendigo.

For a television program, simply use [television  program] instead of [DVD] or [videorecording]


The author of a podcast is not always clear. For this reason, podcasts are listed in the reference list under their title, rather than author. The creators or performers can be acknowledged in the in-text citation.

In-text Citation

Beverly Donsworth (Garden Clinic 2019) says that when African Violets were found in Tanzania in around 1892, they were just blue with 5 petals. 

Reference List 

Garden Clinic 2019, [podcast], 29 October, Retrieved: 14 April, 2020 from

Radio Program

The reference list should use the name of the radio program as author, rather than the person speaking. Use the in-text citation to indicate the speaker, as appropriate.

In-text Citation

Tony Eastley (AM 2010) stated....

Reference List

AM 2010, [radio program] ABC National, 27 March.

YouTube/Online Video

List YouTube or other streaming videos by title. Acknowledge the author or creator of the work in your in-text citation, as required.

In-text citation

The first step in the preservation of pop-up books (Preservation of pop-up books, conserving the past (Baldwin Library exhibit) 2008) is to...

Reference list

Preservation of pop-up books, conserving the past (Baldwin Library exhibit) 2008, [online video], Retrieved: 22 December 2010, from

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