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© Box Hill Institute RTO: 4687 CRICOS: 02411J
- can come in many forms - essay, report, critical review, case study, research paper
- is based on evidence, analysis, ideas and concepts
- is objective, written in a neutral way that states the information and does not show personal bias or emotion. Avoid use of 'I' - and reference to yourself as writer e.g.
Instead of: In this report I will examine .... use This report examines...
- is formally structured, in clear sentences and paragraphs, with correct grammar, spelling and punctuation. It may include section or chapter headings, a table of contents and reference list.
- uses deductive reasoning - You need to evaluate the ideas, compare them with those of other writers, and examine issues and perspectives critically.
- uses formal, impersonal language rather than informal slang or regular speaking language e.g. :
Informal: The social worker looked at their history to find out which interventions had previously been done.
Academic: The social worker examined the client's history to establish which interventions had previously been implemented.
- emphasises facts and ideas. Your opinion may also be required based on the evidence you have provided.
- requires ideas supported by evidence which is cited in the text , with full details given in a reference list or bibliography at the end of your work.
- Usually spells out abbreviations in full e.g. does not, rather than doesn't, is not rather than isn't.
Web links for Academic writing