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IEEE Referencing

Explanation and examples for IEEE referencing style

Online conference proceedings

General format

[#]    A. A. Author. (Date). Title. Presented at Abbreviated Conf. title. [Type of Medium]. Available: site/path/file 


 [1]     J. A. Taylor. (Nov. 2006). Assessment: A tool for development. Presented at Engaging Students: 9th Pacific Rim in Higher Education (FYHE) Conf., Griffith, Australia. [Online]. Available:


Conference titles should be abbreviated, including omitting most articles and prepositions like “of the” and “on.” For example, Proceedings of the 1996 Robotics and Automation Conference becomes Proc. 1996 Robotics and Automation Conf. 

Here are some common abbreviations:

Annals Ann.   Proceedings Proc.   Annual Annu.   Symposium Symp.   Conference Conf.   Congress Congr.   Convention Conv.   Exposition Expo. International Int. National Nat.   First 1st 

General Notes

  • The names of all authors should be given in the references unless the number of authors is greater than six. If there are more than six authors, you may use et al. (meaning ‘and others’) after the name of the first author.
  • Where there are multiple authors, use commas between each name, and precede the final name with 'and'.
  • The author may be an organisation.
  • For books and journal titles, put the title in italics. 
  • Important words of the title are capitalised, but not minor ones, such as ‘and’.
  • Edition number does not need to be given for first editions. 
  • If the publication date is unknown, put in the abbreviation n.d. which stands for ‘no date’ e.g. n.d. or [1690?].
  • Where the full date is required such as for eJournals or websites, note that the month comes before the day and year.
  • Give page numbers unless the entire book is used. Particularly provide page numbers if you have quoted specific facts or materials. Page numbers are p. for a single page or pp. for multiple pages.
  • All references end with a full stop, unless the reference ends with a URL
  • If a reference contains both a URL and a DOI, list both (ending with the DOI). For example,  Available: doi: 10.1002/9780470516034.
  • Common abbreviations: edition (ed.), editor (Ed.), and others (et al.), number (no.), pages (pp.), volume (vol.)
  • Abbreviations for months, words, journal titles and publishers can be found in the websites given below.
  • If unknown, omit details such as day or issue. Do not make up unknown information.
  • Take care to use the correct punctuation.
  • For further information, please refer to Monash University IEEE LibGuide or the official IEEE Reference Guide (2018)