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IEEE Referencing

Explanation and examples for IEEE referencing style

Online Journal or Magazine Article

General format

[Ref #] A. A. Author(s), “Name of paper,” Abbrev. Title of Periodical, vol. x, no. x, pp. xxx–xxx, Abbrev. Month, year. Accessed: Month, Day, Year, doi: 10.1109.XXX.123456. [Online]. Available: site/path/file      (e.g. doi:xxxxx, database or URL) 



[1] W. P. Nygen, “Fast Running on Oil,” Opt. Lett., vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 215–418, Feb. 1990. Accessed: Dec. 7, 2019. [Online]. Available:    

[2] M. Car et al., “Speedy Retrieval,” IEEE THz Sci. Technol., vol. 8, no. 2, p. 20, Nov. 2004. Accessed: Feb. 9, 2020, doi: 10.1107/TTHZ.2016.2544155.

Notes specific to eJournals

Notes specific to eJournals

  • Include the date you access the article in the order of month, day and year.
  • The internet address should be the home address of the database, or online magazine that the magazine appears in, rather than the URL of the particular article.
  • DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is an identifier that never changes. The DOI is often listed somewhere on the first page of a article. 
  • The available site/path/file location of an electronic book can be a DOI, a library database provider or a full URL. 
  • Where possible provide a DOI. Otherwise write a URL in the following way: [Online]. Available: URL  

Notes specific to Journals

  • Put the article title in quotation marks and the journal title in Italics.
  • For IEEE Transactions Journals: Format the full journal title as ‘IEEE Trans. [Journal Title Here]’ (without inverted commas).
  • Include volume, issue and page number(s). Do not capitalise the "v" in Volume for a journal title.
  • Abbreviated month and year of publication with no comma if the month is abbreviated
  • Two months cited for the same issue such be separated by a slash (e.g., Jul./Aug.).

General Notes

  • The names of all authors should be given in the references unless the number of authors is greater than six. If there are more than six authors, you may use et al. (meaning ‘and others’) after the name of the first author.
  • Where there are multiple authors, use commas between each name, and precede the final name with 'and'.
  • The author may be an organisation.
  • For books and journal titles, put the title in italics. 
  • Important words of the title are capitalised, but not minor ones, such as ‘and’.
  • Edition number does not need to be given for first editions. 
  • For USA publication, specify the U.S. State before the Country.
  • If the publication date is unknown, put in the abbreviation n.d. which stands for ‘no date’ e.g. n.d. or [1690?].
  • Where the full date is required such as for eJournals or websites, note that the month comes before the day and year.
  • Give page numbers unless the entire book is used. Page numbers are p. for a single page or pp. for multiple pages.
  • All references end with a full stop, unless the reference ends with a URL
  • If a reference contains both a URL and a DOI, list both (ending with the DOI). For example,  Available: doi: 10.1002/9780470516034.
  • Common abbreviations: edition (ed.), editor (Ed.), and others (et al.), number (no.), pages (pp.), volume (vol.)
  • Abbreviations for months, words, journal titles and publishers can be found in the websites given below.
  • If unknown, omit details such as day or issue. Do not make up unknown information.
  • Take care to use the correct punctuation.
  • For further information, please refer to Monash University IEEE LibGuide or the official IEEE Reference Guide (2018)
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