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APA Referencing (APA 7th edition)

This guide shows students and staff how to reference using the APA Referencing style.

General rules

In text citations

  • In text citations follow the same basic format for all resources - Work the author of the work (as specified below)  and the year into the body of your work.
  • For more, refer to the In-text citations page of this guide. 

Examples of in-text citations: 

Hassan (2019) suggests that...


...of the migratory pattern of birds (Attenborough, 2019).

Reference lists

  • Rules for audio visual materials depend on whether you are referencing a standalone item, or part of a series

  • The 'author' of the work depends on its format, but is usually the person with primary responsibility for the idea or intellectual content of the item. 

  • The format is shown in square brackets after the title, e.g [Film], [TV series], [Video].

  • If a resource is in a different language to your paper, include a translation of the title in square brackets immediately after the title in its source language  e.g. Y tu Mama, tambien [And your Mom too]

  • If a date cannot be found, use (n.d.) in the date field

  • Reference lists should be arranged in alphabetical order by author. All lines after the first line in each individual reference should be indented by 1.25cm. For more information on setting out your reference list, refer to the 'Reference List Example' page of this guide.

  • URLs can be presented either as hyperlinks (usually blue font or blue font underlined) or as plain text, not underlined.

Film, television or video


For films or videos, use the director as the work's author.

If you are referencing a television series, credit the executive producer/s as the author. For a single episode of a TV series, credit both the writer and the director of the episode.

The author's role is indicated following their name in the reference list.

If you can't find details of these contributors, use the work's title as the author, followed by a full stop.

Films and Videos

Author's surname, Initials. (Director). (Year). Title in italics [Format]. Production company

Singer, B. (Director). (2018). Bohemian rhapsody [Film]. Twentieth Century Fox Home Entertainment.

For a film where the authors cannot be located:

Title in italics. (Year). [Format]. Production company.

Professional email etiquette. (2010). [DVD]. Kantola Productions.


Television series.

Author's surname, Initials. (Executive Producer/s). (Years the program ran). Title in italics [TV series]. Production company.

Neighbour, S. (Executive producer). (1961-present). Four corners [TV series]. Australian Broadcasting corporation.


Episode of a television series

Writer's name (Writer), Director's name (Director). (Date of episode). Episode title (Season number and episode number) [TV series episode]. In  Executive producer names (Executive producers), Series title in italics. Production company.

Morgan, P. (Writer), & Caron, B. (Director). (2019, November 17). Olding (Season 3, Episode 1) [TV series episode]. In P. Morgan, P, & S.Daldry (Executive Producers), The Queen. Netflix.

Note the different order that the names of the executive producer/s are presented in, compared to the writers and directors.

TED talks and webinars


The author for a TED talk or webinar is the person making the presentation.

TED Talk

Author's surname, Initials. (Year, month). Title in italics [Video]. Channel. URL

Auer, A. (2020, February). The intangible effects of walls [Video]. TEDxEindhoven


This format should only be used for recorded, recoverable webinars. Webinars that are not recorded should be treated as personal communications

Author's surname, Initials. (Year). Title in italics [Webinar]. Organisation. URL.

Breeding, M. (2020). Library perceptions of technology vendors and products [Webinar]. VALA - Libraries, Technology and the Future Inc.

YouTube and other streaming videos


For YouTube and other streaming videos, use the name of the person or group who uploaded the video as the author, even if they did not create the work. (Note that this rule does not apply to TED talks and Webinars - refer to the separate box covering these formats)


Reference list

Person or group who uploaded the video. (Year, month day). Title in italics [Video]. Channel name. URL. 

Box Hill Institute. (2020, April 1). Screen and media [Video]. YouTube.