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APA Referencing (APA 7th edition)

This guide shows students and staff how to reference using the APA Referencing style.

General information

In text citations
  • In text citations follow the same basic format for all resources - Work the author of the work (as specified below)  and the year into the body of your work.
  • Page numbers must be included for direct quotations, and can also be provided for paraphrases. 
  • For more, refer to the In-text citations page of this guide

Examples of in-text citations: 

Chung (2020) posits as positive relationship between.....


The National Library of Australia is focused on providing access to online resources whilst their physical space is closed due to the Corona virus pandemic (National Library of Australia, 2020).


Reference lists
  • Use this section of the guide only to create references for content that was originally created on that platform - where material has been reposted from elsewhere, you should go to, and reference, the original source of the material.
  • Retain the original format of the post as much as possible e.g. replicate emojis, retain hashtags, links and the original spelling of the post.
  • Where the post does not have a title, use up to the first twenty words of the post as the title.
  • References for other types of social media platform, such as LinkedIn or Tumblr should be adapted from the information given for Facebook below.
  • If a date cannot be found, use (n.d.) in the date field
  • Reference lists should be arranged in alphabetical order by author. All lines after the first line in each individual reference should be indented by 1.25cm. For more information on setting out your reference list, refer to the 'Reference List Example' page of this guide.
  • URLs and DOIs can be presented either as hyperlinks (usually blue font or blue font, underlined) or as plain text, not underlined.
  • Where the work does not have an author, use the item's title in the author's field, followed by a full stop. 
  • Remember that authors can be organisations as well as individuals or several people.

Blog post

Blog posts are referenced in the same way as magazine or journal articles. You do not have to indicate that the source is a blog in your citation.

The general structure of the reference is:

Author's surname, initials. (Year, month day). Article title in italics. Name of publication. URL. 

McKenzie, A. (2019, March 12). The beginning of the Australian web archive. National Library of Australia.

Facebook - posts and pages.

The instructions below provide information about how to reference either a complete Facebook page, or a specific post on a page. 


Facebook page
  • Where a Facebook page has been in existence for more than one year, use n.d. in the date field.
  • Use the page title as part of your reference (e.g. "About", "Videos")
  • As a Facebook page will change over time, you need to include the date that you accessed the information as part of your reference.

Author's surname, Initials (Year.). Page name in italics [Facebook page]. Facebook. Retrieved month day, year, from URL.

Bonds. (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Facebook. Retrieved April 20, 2020, from


Facebook post

References for Facebook posts include information about the type of content in square brackets following the title of the work. (Remember, if the work does not have a title, use up to the first twenty words of the post as the title)

The general structure of the reference should be:

Author's surname, Initials. (Year, month day). Title of post or first 20 word in italics [Format]. Facebook. URL

Murakami, H. (2019, October 12). Painting Commendatore: a billboard with a difference [Video]. Facebook.


Photos on Instagram are treated slightly differently to photos on other websites - instructions for referencing other photos can be found in the 'Images' page of this guide.

References for Instagram have more detailed date information, and include both of the creator's name and their handle.

Author's surname, Initials. [Handle]. (Year, month day). Title of photo in italics [Format]. Platform. URL.

Wang, V. [@Verawanggang] (2020, April 16).  A look back at a work of art [Photo]. Instagram.

Twitter - tweets and profiles

You can reference either an individual tweet, or a Twitter profile. In both cases, you should include both the name of the author and their Twitter handle at the start of your reference list. Include only their name in your in-text citation


  • For individual tweets, include details of any content that is included with the tweet in square brackets after the tweet title eg [Image attached]; [Thumbnail with link attached]. If no content is linked, skip this section of the reference.

Author's surname, Initials. [Twitter handle]. (Year, month day). Title of tweet or up to first twenty words in italics [Details of linked content as required] [Tweet]. Twitter. URL.

National Library of Australia [@nlagovau]. (2020, April 20]. Due to the need to contain the spread of coronavirus (COVID-19), the Library building is closed to visitors [Thumbnail with video attached] [Tweet]. Twitter.


Twitter profile
  • As Twitter profiles change over time, you must include the date that you accessed the material as part of your reference.
  • 'Tweets' as shown below is the default page reference for a Twitter profile - if you are referencing a different page of the profile (e.g. 'Likes'), use that tab name instead of 'Tweets' in your reference. 
  • Where a Twitter profile spans moe than one year, use n.d. in the date field.

Author's surname, Initials. [Twitter handle]. (Year). Page name in italics [Twitter profile]. Twitter. Retrieved month day, year, from URL

Trump, D. J. [@realdonaldtrump]; (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile].Twitter. Retrieved April 20, 2020, from