Skip to Main Content
site header image

APA Referencing (APA 7th edition)

This guide shows students and staff how to reference using the APA Referencing style.

General rules

In text citations
  • In text citations follow the same basic format for all resources - Work the author of the work and the year into the body of your work.
  • Where available page numbers must be included for direct quotations, and can also be provided for paraphrases. 
  • For more, refer to the In-text citations page of this guide 


The work of Goulding (2020) indicates a strong correlation between...


Short sentences are easier for readers to understand than long ones (American Psychological Association, 2019, p. 113).


Reference lists
  • The  title of the article is written in normal type. You should only capitalise the first word of the title, the first word of any sub-title, plus proper nouns (e.g. places, and people's names)
  • All the words in the title of the magazine/journal (except for stop words like of, the or and) have initial capital letters and are written in italics. The volume is also written in italics, but the issue number is not.
  • If a date cannot be found, use (n.d.) in the date field

  • Reference lists should be arranged in alphabetical order by author. All lines after the first line in each individual reference should be indented by 1.25cm. For more information on setting out your reference list, refer to the 'Reference List Example' page of this guide.

  • Where the work does not have an author, use the item's title in the author's field, followed by a full stop. 
  • URLs and DOIs can be presented either as hyperlinks (usually blue font, or blue font, underlined) or as plain text, not underlined.

Article with a DOI

Where a DOI exists for an article, this should be included in the reference list entry.

DOIs should begin with either http or https - if the DOI for your article is not presented in this format, you should be able to search online to find the correct version to use. 

In-text citation

Kovalenko and Kotok (2019) state that nickel hydroxide production....

Reference list:

Surname, Initials. (Year). Article title.  Journal title in italics, Volume number in italics (issue number), page numbers. DOI

Kovalenko, V. & Kotok, V. (2019). Synthesis of nickel  hydroxide in the presence of acetate ion as a soft ligand for application in chemical power sources. Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, 102(6), 6-12.

Article without a DOI, from an online journals database or in print format.

Where an article has a DOI, this should be used in the reference list, as shown above. For articles without a DOI, the reference list entry looks the same, whether the article is sourced from a subscription database, such as Science Direct, or  from a print publication. The name of the database, or a URL are not included as part of the reference.

In-text citation:

You et al. (2009, p. 37) point out that the production of yarns other than cotton also involves a significant level of pollution.


A by-product of the production of synthetic fibres is nitrous oxide, which depletes the ozone layer (You et al., 2009, p. 37)

Reference list:

You, S., Cheng, S., & Yan, H. (2009). The impact of textile industry on China's environment. International Journal of Fashion Design, Technology and Education 2(1), 33-43.

Online article without a DOI, and not from a database

For this type of article, you need to include the article's URL as part of the reference list entry. The in-text citation will be the same as for any article with the same number of authors.


Reference list:

Pierotti, R. (1983). Gull-puffin interactions on Great Island, Newfoundland. Biological Conservation, 26(1), 1-14.!