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APA Referencing (APA 7th edition)

This guide shows students and staff how to reference using the APA Referencing style.

General rules

Reference lists should:

  • start on a fresh page;
  • be headed "References" in bold text, centred;
  • be double spaced;
  • be indented by 1.25cm after the first line of each individual reference;
  • be arranged in alphabetical order by author.

Include the names of all authors in your reference list.

  • The author's surname should be listed first, followed by a comma, and then their initials, separated by full stops e.g. Gervasoni, I.J.
  • Authors should be written in the same order that they appear in on the publication
  • Where there are multiple authors,  place a comma between the names of each author. The final author's name should also be preceded by an '&' e.g. Field, J.K., & Grist, P.D.
  • Where materials are written by organisations, use the organisation's name in full in the author field e.g. Box Hill Institute.
  • Alphabetise works where the author is not known by the resource's title, excluding any words such as 'The', 'By' or 'Of' at the start of the title.
  • Alphabetise numbers written with digits as if they were written in full e.g. 10 years would appear alphabetically under t for ten.
  • Note that the order of given name and family name can vary in different cultures - when using APA referencing style, you should always start the reference with the author's family name. 
  • References for more than one work by the same author, should be arranged in ascending date order:
    • Garvey, P. (n.d.).
    • Garvey, P. (2018).
    • Garvey, P. (2020a). Aardvark.....
    • Garvey, P. (2020b). Zoological...
      The two final references here, which are both published in the same year, are alphabetised by title. Include the additional 'a' or 'b' in your in text citation. 

Reference list example


Auer, A. (2020, February). The intangible effects of walls [Video]. TEDxEindhoven.

Australian Bureau of Statistics (2020, March 20). Population clock. Retrieved April 22, 2020, from

Australian Government. (2020, April 7). Impact of COVID-19 in Australia – ensuring the health system can respond.

Box Hill Institute. (2018). Annual report 2018

Box Hill Institute. (2020, April 1). Screen and media [Video]. YouTube.

Breeding, M. (2020). Library perceptions of technology vendors and products [Webinar]. VALA - Libraries, Technology and the Future Inc.

Clark, H. (2005). Second hand fashion in Hong Kong. In A. Palmer &  H. Clark (Eds.) Old clothes, new looks: Second hand fashion (pp.309-330). Berg Publishers

Crisis exposes the reality of industry super [Editorial]. (2020, April 6). Financial Review.

Daly, J., Speedy, S., & Jackson, D. (Eds.) (2014). Contexts of nursing: An introduction. Elsevier Australia.

Dover Street Studios. (1910). [Photograph of Nellie Melba next to a table with a vase of flowers]. State Library of Victoria.

Google. (2020). [Google Maps directions for driving from Lilydale, Victoria to Box Hill, Victoria]. Retrieved April 8, 2020 from

Herald Sun. (1950). Scotch College boys with decorated car [Photograph]. State Library of Victoria.

Jenner; P. (2002). The noble art of management. In B.Brown (Ed.) The MMF music manager's manual (pp. 31-38). Music Managers Forum.

Khan, S. (n.d.) What is cord blood banking — and is it better to use a public or private facility? Mayo Clinic.

Kovalenko, V. & Kotok, V. (2019). Synthesis of nickel  hydroxide in the presence of acetate ion as a soft ligand for application in chemical power sources. Eastern-European Journal of Enterrprise Technologies, 102(6), 6-12.

Lawrence, J., Perrin, C. , & Kiernan, E. (2015).  Building professional nursing communication.  Cambridge University Press.

Lewis, I., Watson, B., & White, K. M. (2018, October 2-4). Exploring the effectiveness of different types of humour in road safety advertising campaigns [Conference paper]. Australasian Road Safety Conference, Sydney, Australia.

Lui, Y. (2018). Discrete element modelling of geocell-reinforced railway ballast and experimental examination of geocell failure mechanisms [Doctoral thesis, University of Adelaide]. Adelaide Research & Scholarship.

Mann, A. (Host). (2020, March 24). State secrets (7) [Audio podcast episode]. In The Eleventh. ABC Radio.

McKenzie, A. (2019, March 12). The beginning of the Australian web archive. National Library of Australia.

Morgan, P. (Writer), & Caron, B. (Director). (2019, November 17). Olding (Season 3, Episode 1) [TV series episode]. In P. Morgan, P, & S.Daldry (Executive Producers), The Queen. Netflix.

Mozart, W. A. (2010). Clarinet concerto: Clarinet quintet [Album performed by Thea King, with the English Chamber Orchestra]. Hyperion.

Murakami, H. (2019, October 12). Painting Commendatore: a billboard with a difference [Video]. Facebook.

National Library of Australia [@nlagovau]. (2020, April 20]. Due to the need to contain the spread of coronavirus (COVID-19), the Library building is closed to visitors [Thumbnail with video attached] [Tweet]. Twitter.

Neighbour, S. (Executive producer). (1961-present). Four corners [TV series]. Australian Broadcasting Corporation.

Pasco, S., & Brennan, E. (2017). Lifting our game: report of the review to achieve educational excellence in Australian schools through early childhood interventions. Department of Education and Training.

Pierotti, R. (1983). Gull-puffin interactions on Great Island, Newfoundland. Biological Conservation, 26(1), 1-14.!

Professional email etiquette. (2010). [Video]. Kantola Productions.

Quinlan, C. (2019). Business research methods (2nd ed.). Cengage Learning.

Ryan, R. G. (2020). Daytime HONO, NO2 and aerosol distributions from MAX-DOAS observations in Melbourne [Unpublished doctoral thesis]. University of Melbourne.

Sewell, D. (2020, April 20). Key Democrat in all-important Ohio endorses Biden for president. The Age.

Singer, B. (Director). (2018). Bohemian rhapsody [Film]. Twentieth Century Fox Home Entertainment.

Sorrentino, S. A.,  & Remmert, L. N. (2017). Mosby's textbook for nursing assistants (9th ed.). Mosby.

Stemp, S. (2007). Jean Muir: Beyond fashion. Antique Collectors' Club.

10 years of Dolce & Gabbana. (1996). Leonardo Arte.

You, S., Cheng, S., & Yan, H. (2009). The impact of textile industry on China's environment. International Journal of Fashion Design, Technology and Education 2(1), 33-43.