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APA Referencing (APA 7th edition)

This guide shows students and staff how to reference using the APA Referencing style.

Images/Illustrations in a book

If you are referring to an illustration, image or photo in a book, your reference should be for the book that you are sourcing the information from. Refer to the Books (print or online) page of this guide for information on how to set your reference out correctly.

General rules

In text citations
  • In text citations follow the same basic format for all resources - Work the author of the work  and the year into the body of your work.
  • For more information, refer to the In-text citations page of this guide.

Examples of in-text citations: 

The use of colour in Smith's Man at the rail (1977) is a fine example of....


Koresh (2020) suggests that...


Reference lists
  • Where the work does not have an author, use the item's title in the author's field, followed by a full stop. 
  • The author of an artwork, illustration or photograph is the person who created the work. For details on how to format different numbers of authors, refer to the Journal/Magazine article page of this guide.
  • Where the work does not have a title, omit the italicised section of the reference, and instead include a description of the work inside the square brackets.
  • If you cannot find a date for your image, use (n.d.) in the date field.
  • Reference lists should be arranged in alphabetical order by author. All lines after the first line in each individual reference should be indented by 1.25cm. For more information on setting out your reference list, refer to the 'Reference List Example' page of this guide.
  • URLs and DOIs can be presented either as hyperlinks (usually blue font or blue font, underlined) or as plain text, not underlined.


Adapting the rules to different formats

The examples shown below can be adapted for other types of image- change the format of the item in the square brackets to reflect the type of item you are referencing e.g [Clip art], [Painting]

Artwork in a museum or gallery or on their website

Points to note:
  • The following structure should be used for all artwork in a museum or gallery, regardless of format. 
  • Indicate the format of the item in the square brackets following the title e.g [Painting], [Photograph], [Sculpture]
  • The URL should only be included where an image of the item is available online.
  • Where the work does not have a title, include a description of the work in square brackets instead of the title.


Reference list 

Artists surname, Initials. (Year). Title in italics [Format]. Museum or location name. URL.

Smith, I. (1977). Man at the rail [Painting]. National Gallery of Victoria.


Reference list

Author's surname, Initials. (Year). Title in italics [Infographic]. Source name. URL.

Association of Research Libraries. (2013). The good news about library fair use [Infographic]. Association of Research Libraries.


For a static map:

Author's surname, Initials. (Year). Title in italics [Map]. Source name. URL.

Yarra Ranges Tourism. (2019). Melbourne's Dandenong Ranges [Map]. Visit Dandenong Ranges.


For a dynamic map:

Dynamically created maps, such as Google maps, do not have a title. Instead, include a description of the map within the square format brackets. You also need to include the date that you accessed the map, as it will change over time. There are no italics used in this reference.

Author. (Year).  [Description of the map and it's source]. Retrieved month day, year, from URL.

Google. (2020). [Google Maps directions for driving from Lilydale, Victoria to Box Hill, Victoria]. Retrieved April 8, 2020 from


To reference photos on Instagram or other social media streams, refer to the Social media page of this guide rather than the instructions below..


Reference list

Author's surname, Initials. (Year). Title in italics [Photograph]. Source name. URL.

Herald Sun. (1950). Scotch College boys with decorated car [Photograph]. State Library of Victoria.

If the photo does not have a title, omit the italicised section of the reference, and instead put a description of the photo inside the square brackets, as shown below:

Dover Street Studios. (1910). [Photograph of Nellie Melba next to a table with a vase of flowers]. State Library of Victoria.

Note that none of this final reference is italised.

Powerpoint slides

Reference list

Authors' surname, Initials. (Year,month day). Title in italics [PowerPoint slides]. Source name. URL

Mainwaring, R.D., Patrick, W.L., & Hanley, F.L. (2019, March). Surgical management of pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect and major aortopulmonary collateral arteries [PowerPoint slides]. Operative Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery.

If the month and day are not available, skip those parts of the reference.

These instructions also apply to presentation slides from other software packages - just replace PowerPoint in the square brackets with the name of the software used.