In-text citations appear in the body of your work to show where you have referred to someone else’s work.
An in-text citation is required for direct quotes, and also when you have put the information into your own words.
The same rules for in-text citations apply for any format of resource, except for personal communications. Refer to the Personal communications page of this guide for specific information in that area.
Each in-text citation should have an accompanying reference list entry, that gives full details of the resource.
1. "The main subgroups of Flowering Plants are further divided into orders, families, genera (singular - genus) and species" (Clarke & Lee, 2019, p. 3)
2. Clarke and Lee (2019, p. 3) state that "the main subgroups of Flowering Plants are further divided into orders, families, genera (singular - genus) and species".
3. In their 2019 text, Clarke and Lee explain that "the main subgroups of Flowering Plants are further divided into orders, families, genera (singular - genus) and species" (p. 3).
4. "White PVA gives about an hour of working time" (Classroom Video, 2006, 17.18)
This example is for a direct quote from a video
5. The International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (2021, para. 1) states that "public access in libraries can be a powerful tool to bring more people online"
This is example is for a quote from a website with no page numbers
6. Domenico Dolce and Stefano Gabanna has the wonderful ability to "dress a woman like a woman...even if she wants to dress like a man"(10 years of Dolce & Gabanna, 1996, p. 136)
This is for a work where the author is not known.
1. The work of Goulding (2020) indicates a strong correlation ….
2. Short sentences are easier for readers to understand than long ones (American Psychological Association, 2019, p. 113).
3. The chain of survival depends on whether the patient is in or out of hospital (Sorrentino & Remmert, 2017, p. 831).
4. The National Library of Australia is focused on providing access to online resources whilst their physical space is closed due to the Corona virus pandemic (National Library of Australia, 2020).
5. Perry, Potter and Ostendorf (2017, p. 271) argue that ….
5. Smith et al. (n.d.) state that….
This final example is for a resource with three or more authors.