In text citations follow the same basic format for all resources - Work the author of the work and the year into the body of your work e.g. (Attenborough, 2018).
For more, refer to the In-text citations page of this guide.
If a date cannot be found, use (n.d.) in the date field
Reference lists should be arranged in alphabetical order by author. All lines after the first line in each individual reference should be indented by 1.25cm. For more information on setting out your reference list, refer to the 'Reference List Example' page of this guide.
Generally, the same referencing rules apply for both print books and eBooks. However, if the book has a DOI, this should be added to the usual reference list entry. Refer to the final section of this page for examples on referencing books with a DOI.
For general information on how references change depending on the number of authors refer to the tab 'Journal/Magazine Article (print or online)'.
Jean Muir was well-known for designs using tailored matte jersey (Stemp, 2007, p. 84).
Author's surname, Initials. (Year). Title in italics (edition) - if not the first edition. Publisher.
Stemp, S. (2007). Jean Muir: Beyond fashion. Antique Collectors' Club.
Quinlan, C. (2019). Business research methods (2nd ed.). Cengage Learning.
Each reference should have any lines after the first line indented by 1.25cm. This is known as hanging indentation.
For books, capitalise the first word of the title, the first word of any subtitle, and any proper nouns.
The chain of survival varies whether the patient is in or out of hospital (Sorrentino & Remmert, 2017, p. 831).
Sorrentino and Remmert (2017, p. 831) discuss how the chain of survival varies whether the patient is in or out of hospital.
Perry, Potter and Ostendorf (2017, p. 271) argue that health literacy is increasingly important in both the hospital and home environment when caring for patients.
Surname, Initials., & Surname, Initials. (Year). Title in italics (Edition -if not the first). Publisher name.
Sorrentino, S. A., & Remmert, L. N. (2017). Mosby's textbook for nursing assistants (9th ed.). Mosby.
Points to remember:
Where there are three or more authors of a book, include only the name of the first author plus 'et al' in all in-text citations. Include the details of all authors in the reference list.
Effective communication is a key practice for nurses both in academic and practical contexts (Lawrence et al, 2015, p. 70)
Surname, Initials., Surname, Initials., Surname, Initials., & Surname, Initials. (Year). Title in italics (Edition -if not the first). Publisher name.
Lawrence, J., Perrin, C. , & Kiernan, E. (2015). Building professional nursing communication. Cambridge University Press.
A book with an unknown author:
If the author or editor of a book is unknown, use the title of the book in place of the family name of the author.
In text citation :
Domenico Dolce and Stefano Gabanna have the wonderful ability to "... dress a woman like a woman ... even if she wants to dress like a man" (10 years of Dolce & Gabanna, 1996, p. 136).
Title in italics (edition). (date). Publisher.
10 years of Dolce & Gabbana. (1996). Leonardo Arte.
Points to remember
A book with an anonymous author.
If the book's author has chosen to remain anonymous, rather than being unknown, use 'Anonymous' as the author's name for both the in-text citation, and the reference list. In this case, you can follow the rules for referencing books with a single author.
Reference list :
Surname, Initials. (Ed.) (Year). Title in italics (edition -if not the first). Publisher.
Daly, J., Speedy, S., & Jackson, D. (Eds.) (2014). Contexts of nursing: An introduction. Elsevier Australia.
In text citation:
It is extremely important to give an explanation to patients before undertaking a complex procedure (Daly, Speedy & Jackson, 2014).
Clark (2005, p. 168) notes the change in attitudes to second hand clothing in Hong Kong, which occurred in the 1990s.
Second hand clothing, formerly only for those who could afford nothing else, became fashionable in Hong Kong society during the 1990s (Clark, 2005).
Chapter author's Surname, Initials. (Year). Chapter title. In Editors initials and surnames (Eds.), Book title in italics (Edition, if not the first, pp. pages). Publisher.
Clark, H. (2005). Second hand fashion in Hong Kong. In A. Palmer & H. Clark (Eds.) Old clothes, new looks: Second hand fashion (pp.309-330). Berg Publishers.
Jenner, P. (2002). The noble art of management. In B. Brown (Ed.) The MMF music manager's manual (pp. 31-38). Music Manager's Forum.
Points to remember
Books with DOIs are referenced in the same way as books without DOIs, except that the DOI is also included at the end of the reference list entry. DOIs can be presented either as hyperlinks (usually either blue font, or blue font, underlined) or as plain text, not underlined, and should start with either http or https - if your DOI does not start like this, you should be able to search online to find the correct format.
There is no change to the in-text citation
An authored book with a DOI
Peterkin, S.J., & Snape, J. (2020). Infectious diseases and their impact on the community (2nd ed.). McRobinson Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1038/978102928-42568
A chapter in an edited book with a DOI
Hulser, R. (2019). Altmetrics in the museum environment. In E.Lasda (Ed.), New metrics: Practical assessment of research impact (pp. 115-130). Emerald Publishing Limited. https://doi.org/10.1108/978-1-78973-269-620191006