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APA Referencing (APA 7th edition)

This guide shows students and staff how to reference using the APA Referencing style.

General information

Many online resources are covered elsewhere in this guide, including:

  • conference papers
  • eBooks
  • journal articles
  • newspaper articles
  • press releases
  • reports
  • reviews
  • social media such as blogs and Facebook posts
  • streaming videos
  • theses 

The information on this page should only be used if the resource that you are citing is not covered elsewhere in this guide. 


In text citations
  • In text citations follow the same basic format for all resources - work the author of the work and the year into the body of your work.
  • Where available, page numbers must be included for direct quotations, and can also be provided for paraphrases. 
  • For more information, refer to the In-text citations page of this guide.

Examples of in-text citations: 

Hassan (2019) suggests that...


Australia's population is now more than 25.5 million (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2020).


Reference lists
  • Your reference should be for the precise page that the information was found on, rather than for the home page of the site.

  • If a date cannot be found, use (n.d.) in the date field. 

  • Where dates are available, use the most specific date possible - include the month and date where these are available. 

  • If a website contains a year of creation as well as the year it was last updated, use the date of the last update.

  • When the author and the site name are the same, omit the site name from the reference. 

  • If the page content is expected to change over time (for example, on a news page) you should also include a date retrieved as part of your reference. This is the date that you accessed the material 

  • If the page does not have a title, use up to the first twenty words of text on the screen in the title field

  • Reference lists should be arranged in alphabetical order by author. All lines after the first line in each individual reference should be indented by 1.25cm. For more information on setting out your reference list, refer to the 'Reference List Example' page of this guide.

  • Where the work does not have an author, use the item's title in the author's field, followed by a full stop. 
  • URLs can be presented either as hyperlinks (usually blue font,  or blue font underlined) or as plain text, not underlined.

Webpage that is expected to change

Where you are referencing a website that is expected to change regularly (e.g. a news website), your reference should include the date that you retrieved information from the site. 

Author's surname, Initials. (Year, month day). Page name in italics. Site name. Retrieved month day, year, from: URL

Australian Bureau of Statistics (2020, March 20). Population clock. Retrieved April 22, 2020, from

The site name does not appear in the example above because it is the same as the author name.

Webpage with a group author.

As the organisation is both the author and the site name, the site name element is omitted from the reference.

Organisation name. (Year, month day). Page title in italics. URL

World Health Organization. (2020). Ebola virus disease.

The webpage used in the example above only shows the year for this page, so the month and day are omitted from the reference.

Webpage with an individual author

Author's surname, Initials. (Year, month day). Page title in italics. Site name. URL.

Khan, S. (n.d.) What is cord blood banking — and is it better to use a public or private facility? Mayo Clinic.

Citing multiple pages from the same website

If you are citing multiple web pages from same website, distinguish the different pages by inserting a lower case letter after the year e.g. 2020a, 2020b. 'a' should be attached to the first reference, sorted alphabetically.


In-text Citation

Degree students can borrow 15 items at a time (Box Hill Institute 2020a). The library produces online guides known as LibGuides (Box Hill Institute 2020b).

Reference List

Box Hill Institute. (2020a), Borrowing.

Box Hill Institute. (2020b). How can I find subject guides for my course?

Note: If the copyright date is not available on the website, the date field would be in the style n.d.-a, n.d.-b.

Entire website

If you refer to an entire website in the body of your work, include the web address of the site in parentheses. It is not necessary to add a citation for the website to your reference list 

e.g Kidspsych ( is a children’s website.